In recent years, stem cells have become a great alternative for the treatment of very diverse pathologies. In the field of traumatology, it offers great possibilities that can be very beneficial for patients.
What are Stem cells?
Stem cells are those, present in the human body, that has the ability to transform into cells of other organs. Mainly, they are located in the bone marrow and are the most predominant cells in the human body.
Stem cells have unique characteristics, as they have the ability to divide to form new cells, also known as daughter cells.
Stem cell types
Depending on the characteristics they present, different types of stem cells can be differentiated. In the first place, embryonic stem cells differentiate, they are those that are formed in embryos. They can divide into more cells or transform into cells of any type.
On the other hand, adult stem cells are distinguished, which are those that can be extracted from any human being, age being an indifferent factor, in this case. They intervene in the cell renewal process, as well as in the repair of damaged tissues.
Based on other factors, hematopoietic stem cells can differentiate, which can be found in umbilical cord blood and produce healthy blood cells. Second, mesenchymal stem cells, which are located in the cord itself and can repair or regenerate tissues of any type.
In recent years, numerous advances have been made in the study of stem cells, and work is being done with reprogrammed stem cells, those in which their initial qualities are recovered for application in medical treatments.
Stem cell sources
Stem cells come from different parts of the human body. As has been explained, the vast majority come from the bone marrow, which is the great producer of cells in the human body. However, there are other sources of stem cells, for example, the umbilical cord, as well as its blood.
In addition, another of the main sources of stem cells is the peripheral blood that runs through the human body. These cells are used in transplants and are obtained through a process known as apheresis, in which the different types of cells are separated.
Use of stem cells in medicine
Stem cells are used in medicine for the treatment of various pathologies, thanks to their regenerative capacity. Especially in recent years, different therapies based on the use of stem cells are being carried out.
One of the most common treatments is bone marrow transplantation, which is carried out with the aim of replacing damaged cells with healthy cells. There are two types of transplants depending on the procedure that is performed. Firstly, autologous transplantation, in which the implanted cells come from the patient’s own body and is common in cancer patients, and secondly, allogeneic transplantation, in which stem cells come from a donor compatible with the patient.
Stem cell treatable pathologies
There are numerous pathologies that are currently being treated with stem cells. First, leukemia, in which healthy blood-producing stem cells are transplanted to help restore the bone marrow.
In addition, stem cells are being used to treat neurological diseases. In this case, they are implanted in order for the patient to generate new neurons from the implanted stem cells.
One of the most innovative stem cell treatments refers to its use in patients with diabetes. In which the implantation of pluripotent cells that release insulin, in response to glucose, is being investigated.
Stem Cell Treatments in Traumatology
Another of the fields in which there is a great boom in stem cell treatments is traumatology. The regenerative capacity of this type of cell offers great opportunities in the repair of bone and muscle injuries.
Reconstructive surgery consists of implanting stem cells in the affected region, with the aim that they originate new tissues, such as bone, cartilage, skin or muscle.
Benefits of stem cell treatments
Stem cell treatments are positioning themselves as very cutting-edge treatments with a great future projection in the treatment of very diverse pathologies. Therefore, they have many advantages.
In the first place, it is configured as a good alternative to more aggressive treatments that require greater damage to the tissues and a longer recovery period. Therefore, they can be very beneficial in the treatment of chronic injuries.